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Indoor and outdoor positioning and navigation technology, from GPS to Apple ibeacon

Release date:2021-12-27Author source:KinghelmViews:182

Navigation and positioning are the application branches of wireless communication technology. They all make articles on the transmission, transmission, reception and data calculation and analysis of microwave and RF signals. On this basis, a variety of positioning technologies have emerged. In addition to satellite positioning technologies such as BDS and Beidou GPS, other positioning methods include ground base station positioning, WiFi Positioning, IP positioning, RFID RF tag positioning QR code radio frequency tag positioning, RFID radio frequency positioning, Bluetooth Bluetooth positioning, acoustic positioning, AI scene identification positioning, geomagnetic wave positioning, wave wave positioning, UWB (ultra wide band) wireless broadband positioning technology, providing auxiliary positioning, A-GPS, acceleration sensor, gyroscope positioning, etc. Sometimes these technologies are used alone, and sometimes they are the integration and cross mixing of multiple positioning and navigation technologies.

According to different applications, it can be roughly divided into outdoor positioning technology and indoor positioning technology. Because our golden navigation sign "kinghelm" brand (www.BDS666.COM) Beidou antenna GPS antenna type-C connector is matched with these products, so we have been concerned about this technology line and development trend. I am going to summarize the gold navigation buoy song song, the relevant content will be serialized in WeChat official account of "Beidou expert".


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1. There are two main outdoor positioning technologies: Beidou GPS and other satellite positioning technologies, base station IP and A-GPS positioning technologies.

Satellite positioning technology is a very mature technology, such as the well-known GPS and China's Beidou BDS technology, as well as the GLONASS GLONASS of Russia and the Galileo Galileo system of Europe. It is also similar to navigation. Let's analyze it together.

The principle of satellite positioning technology is the same, which is based on the principle of three-dimensional positioning. Generally speaking, one satellite can define the user's sphere, two satellites can locate the user's circumference, three satellites can locate the user's two points on the circumference, and four satellites can locate the user's position. The difference between several satellite positioning technologies is that their positioning reference satellites are located in different countries, and the countries where they are launched and managed are also different:

A. GPS, the navigation system of the United States, is the best and most perfect navigation and positioning system in the world at present: it is composed of 213 satellites distributed on 6 orbital planes, with an orbital height of 20200km and an operation cycle of 11 hours and 58 minutes. This is the earliest satellite navigation and positioning system in the world, which has been applied in all aspects of our life.

B. GLONASS GLONASS is a Russian navigation system: it is composed of 24 satellites distributed on three orbital planes. There are 8 satellites on each orbital plane, with an orbital height of 19100km and an operation cycle of 11 hours and 15 minutes. Dragged down by Russia's economy, GLONASS GLONASS has a mediocre performance, most of which are used in Russia's military and weapons.

C. Galileo Galileo is the positioning and navigation system of European people: it is composed of 30 satellites distributed in three orbits with an orbital altitude of 24126km. The positioning accuracy of Galileo Galileo system is quite good.

D. Beidou BDS is a navigation and positioning system independently developed by China. Its technical indicators and market share rank second in the world, and has a great tendency to surpass the GPS system of the United States. Beidou-3 global satellite navigation system (hereinafter referred to as beidou-3 system) consists of 24 medium circular satellitesEarth orbitSatellite, 3 geostationary orbit satellites and 3 inclined geosynchronous orbit satellites, a total of 30 satellites. The network has been successfully established, and together with the previously launched satellites, a new Beidou navigation system with a total of 55 stars has been formed.

Different from other navigation systems, the Beidou BDS system has the following characteristics: first, the space segment adopts a hybrid constellation composed of three kinds of orbit satellites, which has more high orbit satellites, strong anti occlusion ability and more obvious performance characteristics in low latitudes. Second, the Beidou system provides navigation signals of multiple frequency points. The combined use of multi frequency signals improves the service accuracy. Our golden beacon company (www.bds666. Com) has developed a special military antenna for positioning and navigation according to Beidou's B3 frequency point, which is also applied to meteorological and atmospheric products and services. Third, Beidou system innovation integrates navigation and communication capabilities, and has a variety of service capabilities such as positioning and navigation timing, satellite based enhancement, ground-based enhancement, precision single point positioning, short message communication and international search and rescue.


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Base station location technology is to fix the known base station location (IP) of mobile communication and determine the location according to the information of the customer's mobile terminal. It is a widely used auxiliary location measure.

Several commonly used technologies are: single base station positioning, two base stations positioning, three base stations positioning, and multi-mode hybrid positioning. The location IP of the base station is known. The mobile device can calculate the current location of the device by calculating the location of the adjacent three base stations. The process from starting A-GPS positioning to finding the available Beidou GPS satellite by the GPS terminal receiver is as follows: (1) the equipment obtains the current cell location from the cellular base station (i.e. a coo positioning); (2) The equipment transmits the current cell location to the A-GPS location server in the network through the cellular network (; 3) the a-pgs location server queries the currently available Beidou GPS satellite information (including satellite frequency band, azimuth, elevation and other related information) in the area according to the current cell location, and returns it to the terminal equipment; (4) The GPS Beidou BDS terminal receiver can quickly find the currently available GPS satellites according to the available satellite information.

So far, the GPS Beidou BDS terminal receiver can normally receive GPS signals, and the GPS initialization process is over. The improvement of positioning speed by A-GPS is mainly reflected in this process. Our golden beacon engineers generally call this process hot start.


2. Indoor positioning technology (non exposed or covered space)


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In fact, indoor positioning technology is also called non exposed or covered space positioning technology, which has a very broad market and development prospect. Some people have been insisting on making products in this field, but it has not been widely used due to technical and cost constraints. Recently, indoor positioning technology has become popular again. Apple has launched ibeacon technology, which has driven other WiFi Positioning, IP positioning, RFID RF positioning, QR code tag positioning, RFID RF positioning, Bluetooth positioning and wireless broadband UWB positioning technologies.


There are basically two ways to realize indoor positioning technology: one is to complete positioning based on the calculation of arrival time of spread spectrum signal, and the other is to complete positioning according to the attenuation of signal receiving energy.


The first technology is based on the arrival time of spread spectrum signal. A company called nanotron has produced physical products. The product uses a spread spectrum signal with a bandwidth of 80MHz to calculate and determine the distance between the two through the time consumed in the transmission of radio waves. As we all know, a constant is that the transmission rate of radio waves is the same as the speed of light, which is 300000 km / s. if we want to achieve the positioning accuracy of 1m in theory, we should at least achieve the time discrimination accuracy of 3.333ns. The third-party data show that it is fair. The product accuracy of nanotron can be about 1 ~ 2m, which can be applied in large places.


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The second is based on the attenuation of wireless signal energy. This implementation method is very easy, and many existing wireless communication systems can complete it. For example, WiFi, Bluetooth, etc. the ibeacon Technology launched by apple is based on Bluetooth. It has great influence in the industry because of the blessing of apple and products.


The attenuation of wireless signals in free space is regular, and the attenuation characteristics of signals with different frequencies are different in different environments, but the attenuation curve of wireless signals in free space can be calculated. Because the signal energy detection algorithm will have errors. If a simple analog circuit can achieve / - 3dB, it is necessary to add a digital compensation algorithm. The positioning accuracy of WiFi and Bluetooth can be improved to about / - 1dB. Because the transmission distance of WiFi and Bluetooth is too short, Apple's ibeacon is recommended to be used within 10 meters, so it is suitable for small indoor space. We also develop, produce and sell RFID RF tags, which have been widely used in book management in libraries and valuables management in shopping malls. In the future, RFID RF tags and RFID readers will be more and more widely used in the market.

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Indoor and outdoor positioning and navigation and Beidou antenna GPS antenna knowledge will be introduced here today. Due to space reasons, we will introduce the relevant knowledge of the new product type-C connector of golden beacon next time! You can browse the www.BDS666.com or official account of WeChat. The "kinghelm" trademark was originally registered by golden beacon company. Golden beacon is a direct selling manufacturer of GPS antenna and Beidou antenna. It has a very high popularity and reputation in Beidou GPS navigation and positioning industry. The R & D and production products are widely used in BDS satellite navigation and positioning, wireless communication and other fields. The main products include: rj45-rj45 network, network interface connector, RF connector adapter, coaxial cable connector, type-C connector, HDMI interface, type-C interface, pin and bus, SMA, FPC, FFC antenna connector, antenna signal transmission waterproof connector, HDMI interface, USB connector, terminal line, terminal board terminal, terminal strip, RF RFID tag Positioning and navigation antenna, communication antenna connecting wire, rubber rod antenna, sucker antenna, 433 antenna, 4G antenna, GPS module antenna, etc. can be sold together with the products of Sacco micro slkor (www.slkormicro. Com). Sacco micro slkor r r & D, production and sales of MOS FET, diode, triode, thyristor, Hall sensor, power management IC and other electronic components, It is widely used in aerospace, communication, military industry, instrumentation and security, medical treatment, fast charging PD, high-power power supply and other industries.